Longitudinal exposure to pyrethroids (3-PBA and trans-DCCA) and 2,4-D herbicide in rural schoolchildren of Maule region, Chile
Gutiérrez-Jara, Juan P.
Buralli, Rafael J.
Zúñiga-Venegas, Liliana A.
Muñoz, María Pía
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Background: Several studies showed that early exposure to pesticides affects the development and health of children. In Maule, there is previous evidence of the high exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OP) of schoolchildren. However, to date, there are no studies assessing exposure to pyrethroids and the herbicide 2,4-D. Objetive: To evaluate children's exposure to pyrethroids insecticides 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), trans 3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (trans-DCCA) and 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) herbicides. Method: Longitudinal study with 48 schoolchildren from two rural schools in the Maule region, Chile. Urinary metabolites of pyrethroids 3-PBA, Trans-DCCA and 2,4-D herbicides were evaluated in 2016 and 2017. Mann-Whitney U for repeated measurements and Spearman's rho correlation tests were used for data analysis. Also, we used a system of impulsive differential equations for mathematical modeling. Results: All the schoolchildren assessed had more than two pesticide urinary metabolites in both years, with the 3-PBA metabolite being the most frequent. There was an increase in concentrations of urinary 3-PBA in November 2017, compared to 2016 (from 0.69 μg/L to 1.90 μg/L). In 2016, the specific metabolites of 3-PBA were correlated with Trans-DCCA, 2,4-D, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and para-nitrophenol. In 2017, 3-PBA was correlated with 2,4-D, and Trans-DCCA. The concentrations of 3-PBA of Chilean children were higher than studies conducted in the USA that found an association of prenatal exposure to these metabolites with cognitive difficulties. Conclusions: We found high concentrations of pyrethroid metabolites among all the schoolchildren assessed, which may impact on their health and development. These insecticides had received no attention from the scientific community in Chile, and neither from the government agencies, despite the increased use of these chemicals in recent years. This is the first study in South America that confirms the exposure to pyrethroids and herbicides through biomarkers in human population living near farm fields.
FuenteScience of the Total Environment, 749, 141512
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